The discovery of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their development over the years has dramatically changed the management of acid-related diseases. Today, the therapeutic domain of PPIs ranges from relief of symptoms to cure of mucosal lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PPIs are among the most widely sold drugs in the world and are now even available as over-the-counter medication. This publication presents the experience of the last 25 years during which PPIs have become of enormous value in gastroenterology. The authors provide an update on a variety of subjects, starting with an introduction to the discovery and development of PPIs. This is followed by chapters on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroprotection, Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, peptic ulcer disease, functional dyspepsia, acid suppression in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and gastrointestinal and systemic side effects. Readers who are interested in a current overview of PPIs and their various applications will find this book of great value.
Identifying Helicobacter infection as the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer has dramatically altered the treatment of these disease states. Over the last several decades, scientists have come to understand that the interplay between the bacteria, the host, and the environment all contribute to the clinical outcome of infection. In Helicobacter Species: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods and which are now commonly used to study Helicobacter infection. These include protocols and methods that have evolved over time, and standards across the field have been established which are essential for optimal outcomes and to allow comparison of data across different laboratories. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and practical, Helicobacter Species: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in further study of this crucially important research into Helicobacter research.
Gastric ulcers are erupted when there is an disproportion between the digestive juices generated by the stomach and the diverse factors that defend the mucosal lining of the stomach. Acute gastric problem reduces quickly but Chronic gastric problems lead to ulcers. Nine out of ten Peptic ulcer disease(PUD) or peptic ulcer or stomach ulcer (Gastric and duodenal ulcers) are sore on the inner lining of stomach or deodenum and caused by an infection from the bacterium H. pylori and they are liable to reappear if left untreated. An ulcer in the stomach is called as a gastric ulcer, an ulcer in the duodenum is known as a duodenal ulcer, and a peptic ulcer of the esophagus is an esophageal ulcer. Peptic ulcer disease is suspect in patients with epigastic distress and pain. Peptic ulcers are usually caused by either Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Aspirin, Ibuprofen or other NSAIDs.
Peptic ulcer disease (encompassing gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer) disease affects a large portion of the world population. This occurs due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized as the leading cause of ulcer in the world, particularly in non developed countries, it comes under offensive factors and other agents such as alcohol and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs gain importance in developed countries comes under defensive factors. Nowadays the main line of approach in the treatment of peptic ulceration is the eradication of H. pylori infection. A large number of anti-ulcer drugs, including antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists are available for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, but clinical evaluations of these drugs have shown incidence of relapse, side effects, drug interactions and rebound hyper secretion following drug withdrawal which leads to high ulcer relapse rate. This has been the rationale for the development of new anti-ulcer drugs and thus search for novel molecules has been extended from plant sources that can offer better protection and have better safety profile.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Medical scientists have found a new way to diagnose peptic ulcer by scrutinizing the colour, shape and coating of the human tongue. Indeed, medical experts have brought up evidence showing that this the analysis of the tongue should be done via acupuncture therapy. Therefore, in case of detection of the disease, peptic ulcer, the Chinese scientists have suggested to patients to get treatment from acupuncture treatment or herbal medicine therapy. Further research have shown that the tongue diagnosis techniques can also be used as a noninvasive auxiliary diagnostic method and as an indicator for clinical outcomes for patients with peptic ulcer disease. Medical scientists have explained that a human tongue which is invaded by the Helicobacter pylori infection and blood stasis within the tongue, indicates that the latter has already become a victim of stomach ulcer. The individuals who have received treatment acupunture therapy and herbal medicine therapy, usually possess a tongue with a healthy white color and sublingual vein engorgement. The multiple symptoms of peptic ulcer can be abdominal pain, internal bleeding, bloating, vomitting, melena, hematemesis...
An optimized Ethylcellulose microspheres of Clarithromycin were successfully prepared using emulsion/ solvent evaporation method and Con-A was successfully attached to the microspheres using carbodiimide method. Attachment of lectin to the Ethylcellulose microspheres significantly increased the mucoadhesiveness and also controls the release of Clarithromycin in simulated GI fluids. Conjugation aggregation assay suggesting that the lectin can be able to target in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease. Gamma scintigraphy study suggesting that Con-A lectin conjugated Ethylcellulose microspheres have gained considerable attention due to their ability to adhere to the mucus layer, as well as to release the drug in a controlled manner. It is concluded that designed targeted delivery system could possibly increases the bioavailability of Clarithromycin and treated the gastric ulcer in an effective manner.
This book compared the effectiveness of sequential therapy to standard triple therapy in the eradication of Helicobacter Pylori which is the main known cause of gastritis gastro-duodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, after more than 20 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Currently, apart from having a good knowledge of first-line eradication regimens, clinicians involved in the treatment of diseases caused by this pathogen must also be prepared to accept failures. Therefore, those involved in the design of a treatment strategy should not focus on the results of primary therapy alone, but also the make choices regarding a 'rescue' based on the overall eradication rate. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor with any of two antibiotics, given for a 7-14 day period. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still observed in more than 20% of patients, and the failure rate of first-line therapy may be higher in clinical practice. Therefore, an alternative sequen
Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in human. A close relationship is now thought to exist between H. pylori and peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, and certain other gastroduodenal diseases. Also, it is now firmly established that infection with H. pylori is a key etiological factor in peptic ulcer disease, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, several studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori plays an important role in the treatment of some gastric-intestinal diseases. Biopsy specimens were collected from 150 dyspeptic patients. One hundred and seven were positive for H. pylori. Susceptibilities were determined for these isolates by disc diffusion methods. The prevalence of positive H. pylori isolates among the dyspeptic patients was 71.33%. The resistance rate to metronidazole, tetracycline, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin was 86%, 7.4%, 5.6%, and 0.9%, respectively. Metronidazole resistance was a character of H. pylori isolates within most patients in Ismailia, while amoxicillin resistance is rare.
Hyper-chlorohydria has been long implicated in the etiology of duodenal ulcer(DU). Of late, H. pylori has been associated in the pathogenesis. while hyper-chlorohydria and Helicobacter infection can act throughout the gastroduodenum, it remains unexplained, why there should have predilection for certain well documented and specific sites for peptic ulceration. It has to be explained whether they produce any change in other parts of the stomach besides the ulcer site.Recent works like eradication of H. pylori, leading to healing of peptic ulcer diseases(PUDs) have given encouraging results and proved beyond doubt an association between H. pylori and PUD. Pain,a well known symptom of DU is often experienced throughout the stomach, often associated with generalized tenderness of the epigastrium suggesting possible generalized involvement of the gastric wall. In some cases of CDU, gross dilatation of stomach wall with generalized hypotonia is a common finding. In some others, hypertonic stomach with same pathology is not uncommon. It would therefore be interesting to study the structural changes in the stomach wall in CDU patients which i have tried to describe in this book.