Insight into Host Adaptation of Enterohepatic Helicobacter Bacteria ab 78.99 € als Taschenbuch: A molecular study of the response of Helicobacter hepaticus to bile and the effect of Helicobacter bilis on human hepatoma cells. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Biologie,
Helicobacter pylori is responsible for worldwide chronic bacterial infection in humans affecting approximately half of the world's population. H. pylori is also classified as class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO). There is a wide spectrum of clinical consequences by H. pylori, ranging from gastric cancer to ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenicity of the infection depends on the strain virulence, host susceptibility and environmental co-factors. During the process of H. pylori infection, the antigens secreted from the bacterium elicit strong humoral immune responses which may serve as prospective infection biomarkers. The infection has both direct and indirect impact on economic and overall well-being of patients, hence, there is a great need for diagnostic markers that could be used in the development of diagnostic kits and vaccines.
More than 50% of the world's population harbor Helicobacter pylori in their upper gastrointestinal tract. H. pylori persistently infects gastric mucosa and is associated with several diseases including peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. One of the most thoroughly studied virulence factors produced by H. pylori is the Vacuolating Cytotoxin A (VacA).The protein binds to the host cells and is internalized. Inside the host cells, it causes "vacuole"-like membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Besides vacuolation, VacA exerts various other effects on target cells. VacA also forms membrane-embedded pores at the inner-mitochondrial membrane, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction by cytochrome c release and apoptosis induction. VacA suppresses nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) resulting in down regulation of interleukin-2 (IL2) gene transcription to efficiently block proliferation of T-cells. This book underlines the results showing involvement of VacA in the modulation of intracellular calcium signalling and therefore will provide new insights that are required to understand how VacA inhibits T-cell proliferation.
Enterohepatic Helicobacter species are emerging infectious disease agents. Infection of the enterohepatobiliary tract of several mammals by these bacteria results in various pathological disorders. The adaptation of Helicobacter hepaticus to human factors such as bile was investigated using proteomics and transcriptomics. Ninety-one different proteins were identified in the responses of H. hepaticus to human, porcine and bovine bile. These proteins participate in several key cellular processes including DNA replication, protein transcription, translation and folding, oxidative stress response, motility, virulence, and metabolism. In particular, the bacteria deployed several strategies such as inhibition of the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain as well as iron sequestration to ensure control of the levels of hydroxyl radicals. The responses of human HEp-2 and Huh7-derived cell-lines to H. hepaticus and Helicobacter bilis, respectively, were also investigated.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Xanthomonas oryzae is a species of proteobacteria. The major host of the bacteria is rice. The species contains two pathovars which are non-European: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola. Host resistance gene, Xa21,from Oryza longistaminata is integrated into the genome of Oryza sativa for the board range resistance of rice blight disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. The Proteobacteria are a major group (phylum) of bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, and many other notable genera.
During infection the human body interacts intimately with the infectious pathogen. It is this interaction that determines disease outcome. Upon infection the protein NF-kappaB acts as a central signal transmitter of the innate immune system. This protein has two main functions: the activation of genes important for inflammation as well as those that secure survival of the cell. This dual role provides a mechanistic link between infections and cancer development, as seen during infection with the carcinogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori. Bacteria that develop intracellularly, such as Legionella pneumophila, depend on the survival of the host cell and can thus benefit from NF-kappaB activation. But how is NF-kappaB activated in these infections? And how is the activation terminated? The author introduces us to NF-kappaB signalling and then analyses NF-kappaB activation during infections with H. pylori or L. pneumophila. She establishes a new test system for high-throughput screenings and identifies new cellular factors important in NF-kappaB activation and termination. The identification of these factors broadens our understanding of innate immune signalling.
Identifying Helicobacter infection as the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer has dramatically altered the treatment of these disease states. Over the last several decades, scientists have come to understand that the interplay between the bacteria, the host, and the environment all contribute to the clinical outcome of infection. In Helicobacter Species: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods and which are now commonly used to study Helicobacter infection. These include protocols and methods that have evolved over time, and standards across the field have been established which are essential for optimal outcomes and to allow comparison of data across different laboratories. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.Authoritative and practical, Helicobacter Species: Methods and Protocols seeks to aid scientists in further study of this crucially important research into Helicobacter research.
bacterial carbohydrate recognition are conveyed, covering Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria, in Chapter 4 Streptococci and Staphylococci, and in Chapter 5, carbohydrate binding specificities of Helicobacter pylori. In Chapter 6, Bitter sweetness of complexity, the collected reflections on mic- bial adhesion are expanded by a perspective on a broader impact of glycosylation on cellular adhesion, motility and regulatory processes, paralleling the complexity of N-glycan structures on cell surfaces. It highlights particularly how structural details of N-glycans have been causally related to pathological scenarios, with a focus on ?(1,6)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. In the final chapter, biofilm formation is reviewed, covering knowledge about structure and biosynthesis of polysaccharide intercellular adhesins (PIAs) which are central to biofilm formation. This comprehensive chapter explains all PIA-related principles of medical device-associated infections. It is our hope, that this collection of expert articles, ranging from structural ch- istry and structural biology to biochemistry and medicine, will be a stimulation and motivation for our colleagues in the life sciences. At the same time, we hope that these reflections on microbial adhesion will awake interest in and promote und- standing of the complex processes associated with the glycocalyx and the multif- eted interactions between the host cell and its guest, as well as the biological consequences resulting from this mutual interplay.
This book focuses on immune reactions and interactions of humans with Helicobacter pylori - a human pathogen connected to gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer. With nearly half of the world's population colonized, it has been characterized as one of the most successful pathogens for more than 100,000 years of co-evolution with its host. The respective chapters discuss not only how H. pylori infection is considered a paradigm for persistent bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, but also how the infection might be connected to host protection against gastro-esophageal diseases, asthma, and other allergic disease manifestations. Readers will gain essential insights into the roles of specific factors in the immune response and learn about the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, the book discusses the strategies used by this bacterium, which allow it to colonize specific sites in the stomach, interact with the microbiome, evade immune surveillance and undermine the resolution of inflammation during persistent infection.This volume presents a concise summary of recent advances in the areas of induction, resolution and escape of inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, gastric disease development, as well as treatment and vaccination against H. pylori . Accordingly, it offers a valuable asset for scientists and clinicians alike.