The etiology of chronic spontaneous urticaria often remains un-established despite extensive investigative workup rendering cause specific management difficult. Foods, drugs, inhalants, systemic diseases, autoimmunity, and stress have been implicated frequently. Focal bacterial, viral and parasitic infections too have been involved in a significant number of cases and treating them empirically remains an unsubstantiated method in urticaria management. Helicobacter pylori infection has been also linked to chronic urticaria in 60-71% patients. Interestingly, H. pylori eradication treatment may lead to remission of urticaria in up to 80% patients including antihistamine unresponsive cases. The study notes a higher prevalence of asymptomatic H. pylori infection in a subset of chronic urticaria patients compared to controls. How it influences the chronicity, recurrences, severity or other manifestations of urticaria/angioedema, and its remission after eradication therapy remains conjectural in view of high endemicity of infection in developing countries in general.
Peptic ulcer or Dyspepsia is one of the global`s diseases which causes mortality throughout the world, touching the lives of millions of peoples. For many years excess acid was believed to cause peptic ulcer. This misconception was suddenly illuminated due to the discovery of Helicobacter pylori bacteria which play a great role in the cause of peptic ulcer disease. To treat peptic ulcer natural products and modern synthetic drugs are in used but, still a complete cure has not been discovered and exploration of new antiulcer drugs has remain a field of active research. In this research a ground leaves of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius were macerated. The fractions obtained where subjected to phytochemicals screening, Antioxidant activity using DPPH and Antiulcer activity using an in vivo method on small animals. Causes, symptoms and treatment of peptic ulcer disease were discussed. The study has been a contribution to the assessment of possible antioxidant and antiulcer substances and should be useful to Biologist, Biochemists, Chemists, Health workers and other Medical practitioners.
This book focuses on immune reactions and interactions of humans with Helicobacter pylori - a human pathogen connected to gastritis, peptic ulcers and even gastric cancer. With nearly half of the world's population colonized, it has been characterized as one of the most successful pathogens for more than 100,000 years of co-evolution with its host. The respective chapters discuss not only how H. pylori infection is considered a paradigm for persistent bacterial infection and chronic inflammation, but also how the infection might be connected to host protection against gastro-esophageal diseases, asthma, and other allergic disease manifestations. Readers will gain essential insights into the roles of specific factors in the immune response and learn about the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, the book discusses the strategies used by this bacterium, which allow it to colonize specific sites in the stomach, interact with the microbiome, evade immune surveillance and undermine the resolution of inflammation during persistent infection.This volume presents a concise summary of recent advances in the areas of induction, resolution and escape of inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, gastric disease development, as well as treatment and vaccination against H. pylori . Accordingly, it offers a valuable asset for scientists and clinicians alike.
This volume details our current understanding of the architecture and signaling capabilities of known canonical and non-canonical inflammasome complexes and highlights their action, in particular in response to infection with important bacterial model organisms and the corresponding disease pathologies. The first chapters review new insights into the assembly and structures of inflammasome components and emphasize general strategies of up- and downstream signaling events. In addition, the authors specifically discuss the composition and activity of inflammasomes during infection with various gut pathogens ( Salmonella , Shigella , Yersinia , Listeria and Helicobacter ), respiratory pathogens ( Mycobacterium , Legionella , Burkholderia and Streptococcus ) as well as skin and soft tissue pathogens ( Francisella and Staphylococcus ). The discoveries presented provide a better understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of inflammasomes, which will pinpoint important new therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of multiple infectious diseases in the future. It is a valuable resource for students, scientists and clinicians, providing up-to-date information on this emerging research topic.
This book provides a detailed review of the most recent pathogenetic, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in connection with Helicobacter pylori, along with priority areas in research and trends in clinical practice to address this significant pathogen acknowledged as the causative agent in a wide range of diseases, including gastric adenocarcinoma, MALT lymphoma and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Medical authorities worldwide now recommend a "test and treat" strategy for this bacterial infection. Eradication therapy approaches range from general mass eradication therapy to tailor-made therapy for antibiotic-resistant refractory infection. In regions with high prevalence of H. pylori infection, the infection itself would be considered a major parameter to predict the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. The main interest has shifted recently to the risk stratification strategy for gastric cancer development and to the wide-ranging application of its serological prevention program.This book will benefit all gastroenterologists, hematologists, dermatologists, primary care doctors, epidemiologists, physicians who related with community hygiene, as well as basic scientists, particularly microbiologists, bacteriologists, pathologists, molecular biologists, biochemists, immunologists and oncologists.
The discovery of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and their development over the years has dramatically changed the management of acid-related diseases. Today, the therapeutic domain of PPIs ranges from relief of symptoms to cure of mucosal lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. PPIs are among the most widely sold drugs in the world and are now even available as over-the-counter medication. This publication presents the experience of the last 25 years during which PPIs have become of enormous value in gastroenterology. The authors provide an update on a variety of subjects, starting with an introduction to the discovery and development of PPIs. This is followed by chapters on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenetics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroprotection, Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, peptic ulcer disease, functional dyspepsia, acid suppression in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and gastrointestinal and systemic side effects. Readers who are interested in a current overview of PPIs and their various applications will find this book of great value.
This volume reviews the current state of research concerning bacterial virulence factors and the infection biology of Helicobacter pylori , which is the leading cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer worldwide. The chapters include cutting-edge findings on this fascinating microbe and discuss the general strategies of H. pylori infection and persistence, news on important H. pylori virulence factors, crosstalk with the microbiota, hot novel models and signaling mechanisms, risk factors of gastric disease and stomach cancer, and the impact of H. pylori infection on non-gastric diseases. Written by internationally respected scientists, this book will appeal to clinicians, researchers and advanced students alike.
The ability of bacterial colonies to induce hemolysis when grown on blood agar is used to classify certain microorganisms. They are three types of hemolysis alpha, beta and gamma. Alpha hemolysis is partial hemolysis andcalled green hemolysis because of the color change in the agar.Beta hemolysis is complete hemolysis, is a complete lysis of red cells in the media and appearlightened and transparent.Gamma hemolysis is non-hemolytic. A substance that causes hemolysis is a hemolysin Hemolysins are certain proteins and lipids that cause lysis of red blood cells by damaging their cell membrane.Although hemolysins are able to lyse red blood cells in vitro, the ability of hemolysins to target other cells, including white blood cells, often accounts for the effects of hemolysins during infection. Pathogenic Hemolytic Bacteria may be gram positive bacteria such as (staphylococcus, streptococcus, bacillus and listeria ) Gram negative bacteria such as (Neisseria, Pseudomonas,Haemophilus,Helicobacter, Escherichi, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella and Proteus),Study general characterstics of each bacterium that cause human diseases.